It's time for the graphene industry to return to r

2022-09-19
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Graphene industry: it's time to return to rationality

graphene, as a honeycomb planar film formed by carbon atoms in the form of SP2 hybridization, is known as the "king of materials" in the new century and has become the focus of global attention because of its very good tensile strength, light transmission, electrical and thermal conductivity

in recent years, the concept of graphene has been widely sought after all over the world. The popularity of graphene in China has also continued unabated. Seminars and demonstrations on graphene have been held one after another, with sevenoreight in a month. In this upsurge of graphene, some places have gone to the other extreme, taking graphene as a "magic elixir" to promote economic development, to the point of irrational fanaticism

at the 2017 China International graphite conference recently held in Xi'an, industry experts present expressed concern about the current overheating of graphene in China, and conducted a special discussion on the relationship between graphite resources and graphene

"some places confuse graphene with graphite resources. As long as graphite resources are found locally, the concept of graphene will be developed. Moreover, graphene industrial parks based on graphite resource planning are the same everywhere, and the homogenization is very serious." Xiang Qi, Secretary General of the graphite Professional Committee of the China nonmetal mining industry association, said anxiously, "at present, there are too many hypes in the graphene industry, and there is great local blindness. It is time to return to rationality."

why graphene is popular

graphene, as a new material that has been adjusted before leaving the factory, has appeared for more than 10 years

in 2004, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov from the University of Manchester successfully separated stable graphene for the first time, and their separation method is also extremely simple. Sticking natural graphite sheets to the hydraulic universal testing machine mainly adopts high-pressure hydraulic source as the power source, folding the sticky side in half, and then tearing the tape, so that the graphite sheets are divided into two. By providing an independent innovation platform to enhance the coordination and connection ability and international competitiveness of upstream, midstream and downstream enterprises of civil aircraft materials, this process is constantly repeated, and the flake graphite becomes thinner and thinner, and a certain amount of graphene can finally be obtained. In 2010, the inventor of graphene won the Nobel Prize in physics

"graphene is one of the deep-processing products of natural graphite. Because its characteristics are better than graphite, graphene has the reputation of 'King of new materials'." Liuronghua, Deputy Secretary General of the graphite Professional Committee of China non metallic mineral industry association and CEO of graphite (Beijing) Interactive Technology Co., Ltd., introduced that graphite is composed of multiple layers of graphene with hexagonal plane, and its interlayer is an intermolecular force with weak binding force. Using chemical or electrochemical methods, other heterogeneous atoms, molecules or molecular groups can be inserted into the graphite layers to become graphite interlayer compounds. This kind of compound can be de inserted under the action of external force, making the graphite separate into multilayer or monolayer graphene

"for example, graphite is like a book. Taking out the sheet of paper inside is graphene. The structural characteristics of graphene determine that graphene has the characteristics of thin and hard, good light transmittance, strong thermal conductivity, high conductivity, stable structure, fast electron migration speed and so on." Liu ronghua said

based on the above special properties of graphene, China's graphene industry has also developed rapidly in recent years. According to relevant data, the size of the national graphene market in 2015 was about 6.1 million US dollars, with a year-on-year increase of more than 336%. According to preliminary statistics, it has exceeded US $20million in 2016

however, due to reasons such as technological progress and slow cost reduction, China's graphene industry has not yet seen large-scale industrialization, and it is still in the stage of "many callers, many followers and slow commercialization and industrialization"

nevertheless, many places and even some experts in the industry still have great expectations for graphene. Some places are flocking to the graphene industry, and regardless of the cost, they invite experts to discuss, demonstrate and plan everywhere, and are busy building industrial parks

liuzhongfan, chairman of Zhongguancun graphene industry alliance and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, soberly said: "graphene is a real industry, not an Internet industry. It is not a simple trick to go up and make a lot of money. However, graphene in the future must have broad prospects and be a big cake. As long as we have firm confidence and unremitting efforts to do this industry, we will be able to succeed."

graphite resources are not equal to graphene

graphene comes from graphite resources and is one of the high-tech products of graphite resources. It is also for this reason that many places simply equate graphite resources with graphene, and believe that if there are local graphite resources, the graphene industry can be developed. Therefore, in recent years, where graphite resources are found, they have begun to plan and develop the graphene industry in a crowd

"there are many products that can be developed by using graphite resources. Enterprises should develop multiple varieties and high-value products around the market according to local conditions. However, if they all focus on graphene as a 'single bridge', it is likely that the gains will outweigh the losses, making graphene, an emerging industry, the next photovoltaic industry." Xiang Qi said

"graphene was invented through natural graphite. There is a certain relationship between the two, but they cannot be simply confused." Liuronghua said that graphite resources are abundant in China, and the output accounts for about 70% of the world. In recent years, graphite resources have been found in some regions, and it is planned to build graphene Industrial Park. There are two kinds of graphene, graphene film and graphene powder. Graphene film is prepared by CVD method, and its raw material is not natural graphite, and industrialization will take some time

"graphite resources are strategic mineral resources, and graphene is a strategic emerging material." Liuronghua introduced that at the end of last year, crystalline graphite was listed as a national strategic mineral resource. In terms of resource allocation, financial investment, major projects, mining land and other aspects, we should strengthen guidance and differentiated management, and improve the safe supply capacity and development and utilization level of resources. In a sense, graphite resources are given by "God" and reflect the role of raw materials, which are used in metallurgy, fire resistance, casting, friction, sealing, lithium battery and other industries. Graphene is included in the 13th five year plan for the development of national strategic emerging industries. Graphene new materials have the characteristics of high technology intensity, high research and development investment, high added value of products, strong internationality of production and market, wide application range and good development prospects

in terms of current development, the development and utilization of graphite resources is a mature industry in China, while the graphene industry has not formed a scale at present. In particular, the crystalline graphite industry has an average annual output of 700000 tons of crystalline graphite. Jixi and Luobei in Heilongjiang, Xinghe County in Inner Mongolia, and nanshau and Pingdu in Qingdao are important crystalline graphite production areas in China. A complete graphite industry chain of mining, purification and deep processing has been formed, making a certain contribution to the local economic development

after the inventor of graphene won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2010, graphene has since entered the public's vision, setting off a global upsurge of research on the preparation and application of graphene. China's research in the field of graphene started relatively late compared with developed countries, but with the efforts of recent years, it is at the world leading level in the field of graphene industrialization and application. By the end of 2016, the application of graphene in China had made breakthroughs in new energy, great health, energy conservation and environmental protection, composite materials and other fields, and some graphene enterprises began to make profits

"However, at present, the domestic graphene industry is dominated by small and start-up graphene enterprises, and the number of medium-sized and large enterprises is relatively small. Although graphene scientific research is very hot now, in contrast to the product market, there are not many products that really open up commercial applications. Therefore, in the graphite resource areas, it is suggested to focus on the development of graphite deep-processing products, such as high-purity graphite, expandable graphite, spherical graphite, cathode materials, etc., for the local Bring income and taxes. Graphene is difficult to form scale in a short time. " Liu ronghua admitted

there are also obvious differences in properties between graphite resources and graphene. Graphite resources have the property of assets, while graphene is a technology and capital intensive industry. In recent years, there have been many mergers and acquisitions in the graphite industry, especially the acquisition of graphite mineral resources by listed companies. The valuation has doubled several times, with the highest reaching 18 times. From this point of view, graphite resource is an asset with value-added space. Especially with the rapid development of power batteries, the demand for graphite has increased rapidly, thus improving the valuation of graphite resources

graphene is a technology intensive industry, which has high requirements for talents. At the same time, graphene is also a capital intensive industry. The preparation and R & D of graphene, especially the application research and development, need a lot of capital investment. For example, Jiangsu Changzhou and wufutu, which are developing relatively fast in graphene in China, will rely on the national science and technology plan, introduce some local policies to attract high-end talents at home and abroad, and financially allocate a lot of funds to support graphene enterprises

"In areas with graphite resources, we should encourage the introduction of powerful enterprises to integrate, avoid resource waste and disorderly competition, and improve industry concentration. Only large enterprises have the incentive to invest in graphite deep processing research and mining high value-added products of graphite. Graphene has advantages in the development of economically developed areas, because economically developed areas can gather high-end talents, and local governments also have the financial resources to support the research and development of graphene 。” Liu ronghua suggested

graphene deficiency fire should fall early

ideal is very plump, reality is very bony. In fact, the current domestic graphene false fire phenomenon has caused concern in the industry

"although the graphene industry is still in the basic research stage and there is still a long way to go from industrialization, the hype is very strong now, which will cause fatal obstacles and harm to the follow-up development of this emerging industry." Xiang Qi said

it is understood that the number of relevant enterprises engaged in graphene R & D, production and application in China currently exceeds 400, accounting for about 3/4 of the total number of graphene enterprises in the world. However, from the perspective of enterprise scale, more than 80% of domestic enterprises engaged in graphene production are small and medium-sized enterprises, and most of the annual sales are at the level of one million yuan. It is worth noting that the overall profitability of domestic graphene production enterprises is very weak. Some production enterprises that claim to have a production capacity of 100 tons per year are far from achieving the expected output value and profitability, and most enterprises are in a state of loss

it is particularly noteworthy that at present, some enterprises and institutions are in the mentality of obtaining income through capital speculation, blindly exaggerating the production capacity and output value of the graphene industry, causing the market to blindly follow suit. And some places are also adding fuel to the flames. No matter whether they have the conditions or not, they are eager to start the construction of graphene Industrial Park. According to preliminary statistics, at present, nearly 20 graphene industrial parks in China have been built or are under construction, but their positioning and functionality are almost the same. In the future, there will be serious homogeneous competition, and the low price bureau will lead to the decline of enterprise profitability, which is not conducive to the sustainable development of the industry

the development of graphene is inseparable

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